當前村寨:彝族 天天计划北京赛车 <<民俗村寨

民族概況
彝族約420萬人口,是省內人口最多、分布最廣的少數民族,主要聚居在金沙江、元江流域和哀牢山、無量山腹地。
村寨介紹

彝族在云南境內約471萬人,是省內人口最多、分布最廣的少數民族,主要聚居在金沙江、元江流域和哀牢山、無量山腹地。彝族是一個能歌善舞的民族,民間打歌、跳樂之風盛行,大三弦、跌腳舞久負盛名?;鳶呀謔且妥遄罹嚀厴拿褡褰諶?。

彝族村占地50余畝,三虎浮雕墻與虎頭內祖師形象表現了彝族虎鷹文化。太陽歷廣場圖騰柱上有太陽、虎、火和八卦圖形象,周圍環繞著10個朝向不同的月球造型,外圓周有12生肖石雕。依山而建的“土掌房”歌舞樓、民居房、湯鍋坊及織繡間,以及土司院等,表現了生態和諧。村中建有斗牛場和茶山園,還有秋千等民間體育設施。

Numbering 4.71 million, the Yi minority is Yunnan’s largest minority group in terms of population and areas of distribution. The Yi minority people of Yunnan Province mostly live in compact communities along the Jinsha River and Yuanjiang River reaches, or in the hinterland of the Ailao Mountain and Wuliang Mountain. A minority group keen on singing and dancing, the Yi people are extremely well-known for their dage, tiaoyue, dasanxian (large three-stringed guitar) and diejiao dances. Torch Festival is the Yi minority’s biggest annual celebration that shows the most distinctive ethnic minority features.

The Yi Village is constructed on a land patch measuring over 50 mu, and major components of the village include the relief-sculpture wall showing three tigers and the tiger-head figure representing the Neizushi or founder of the Yi religion, all of which symbolize the “tiger- and eagle-worshiping culture” of the Yi minority people. The totem poles on the Solar Calendar Square are richly decorated with imageries of the sun, tiger, fire and the Eight Diagrams, around which are 10 moon-shaped sculptures that face different directions. On the outer circumference of the square are stone carvings of the 12 shengxiao (12 animals which represent the 12 Earthly Branches, used to symbolize the year in which a person is born). Buildings constructed on the mountain slope include the tuzhang-style theater which is consisted of rammed earth walls and roof, local people’s houses, the tangguo house which is virtually a kitchen, the cloth-weaving and embroidering rooms and the headman’s compound, all of which fully portray the Yi people’s ecological concept of seeking harmonious coexistence with the nature. Other components of the Yi Village include the bullfighting ground, tea plantations, swings and other minority sport facilities.



民居建筑
土掌房--彝族獨特的民居建筑:彝族的“土掌房”的墻體以泥土為料,修建時用夾板固定,填土夯實逐層加高后形成土墻(即“干打壘”)。彝族住房多為三間或五間,正中一間為堂屋,是家庭成員聚會之所,亦為接待客人之所??殼獎謐蟛?,設一火塘,火塘邊立石三塊成鼎狀,鍋支其上,稱為“鍋莊”,莊嚴禁人踩踏跨越,否則認為不吉。上方以蔑索吊一長方形木架,上鋪竹條,作烘烤野獸干肉或蒜頭、花椒、辣子之用??捎靡災蠓?、燒茶、取暖和照明?;鹛臉晌妥宕菸幕某∷?。
宗教信仰
彝族宗教具有濃厚的原始宗教色彩,崇奉多神,主要是萬物有靈的自然崇拜和祖先崇拜。自然崇拜中,最主要是對精靈和鬼魂的信仰。
禮儀習俗
彝族實行父系小家庭制,婚后分爨別居。通常幼嗣承家,女子無財產繼承權。彝族少女成年時要舉行一種神秘的“換裙”儀式,彝語“沙拉洛”,意為脫去童年的裙子,換上成年的裙子?;蝗掛鞘蕉嘣詰ニ昃儺?,雙歲換裙視為不吉利。
語言
彝語屬漢藏語系藏緬語族彝語支,有6個方言,25種土語。彝族有本民族文字,在明、清文獻中稱之為“爨文”、“爨字”或“韙書”,近代也稱“倮文”、“夷書”、“畢摩文”等,是一種超方言的音節文字。
婚俗
彝家婚俗有姑舅表優先婚、搶婚等多種形式,姑舅表優先婚表現為,姑舅表兄弟姐妹,無論哪一方的子女,都鼓勵他們彼此通婚,并享有締婚的優先權。姑家的女兒要嫁給別人,必須征得舅家的同意?!扒闌欏庇姓媲闌楹圖僨闌榱街擲嘈?,“真搶婚”是青年男女從認識到相愛,因經濟狀況和社會地位的差異遭到女方家庭的反對,以致不得不采取非和平手段來達到結婚目的。事后男方會請自己的親戚朋友幫忙,派人去女方家說情,女方礙于情面,只好答應這門親事,重新舉行結婚儀式,搶婚宣告成功效?!凹僨闌欏敝皇歉魴問?。
服飾
男子通常穿黑色窄袖右斜襟上衣和多褶寬褲腳長褲,有的地區穿小褲腳長褲,并在頭前部正中蓄小綹長發頭帕,右方扎一鉗形結。婦女較多地保留民族特點,通常頭上纏包頭,有圍腰和腰帶;一些地方的婦女有穿長裙的習慣。男女外出時身披擦爾瓦。首飾有耳墜、手鐲、戒指、領排花等,多用金銀及玉石做成。
文化
彝族創制過10個月為1年的太陽歷,并有《歷算書》、十二獸歷法》、《太陽歷》等彝文典籍記述,已引起天文史學界的高度重視?;勾從幸臀囊┑洹鍍胨帳欏?。
飲食
彝族風味主食是蕎粑,云南彝族傳統佳肴白水煮乳豬,用乳豬水煮后蘸食。云南彝族風味名小吃鍋巴油粉,用豌豆面制成。彝族喜食酸、辣,嗜酒,有以酒待客的禮節。酒為解決各類糾紛,結交朋友、婚喪嫁娶等各種場合中必不可少之物。
歌舞
彝族的民間舞蹈往往和歌唱、器樂的演奏分不開。著名的舞蹈有“阿細跳月”、“煙盒舞”、“左腳舞”等,都是集體舞蹈,通常用笛子、月琴、大三弦等樂器伴奏?!疤恕薄妥宓母櫛璋椴停骸疤恕奔次璧缸派喜?,它是云南無量山、哀牢山彝族民間一種獨特的上菜形式和宴賓時的最高禮儀,是舞蹈、音樂與雜技完美結合的歷史悠久的傳統飲食文化。
節日
彝族的節日主要有火把節、彝族年、拜本主會、密枝節、跳歌節等?!盎鳶呀凇筆且妥宓厙釔氈槎盥≈氐拇辰諶?,一般在農歷六月二十四日至二十六日晚上舉行 。每到火把節,彝族男女老少,身穿節日盛裝,打牲畜祭獻靈牌,盡情跳舞唱歌、賽馬、摔跤。夜晚,手持火把,轉繞住宅和田間,然后相聚一地燒起篝火,翩翩起舞。